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What Causes Vaginal Dryness 

Other possible reasons:

Vaginal Dryness is a common symptom usually associated with genitourinary syndrome of menopause as a result of low levels of estrogen .


Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) is a chronic, progressive vulvovaginal, sexual, and lower urinary tract condition, characterized by related estrogen deficiency, involving changes to the vulva, vagina, urethra, and bladder.

Vaginal dryness may also occur in pre-menopausal women because of prolonged periods of low estrogens , such as low dose combined oral contraceptive (COC) and or progestogen only methods[1]

It was demonstrated that pre-menopausal women between 35-49 years of age reporting vaginal dryness could be also described as reduced vaginal lubrication during sexual arousal occurring, sometimes or often, in around a third of the sample[4

Poor arousal is strongly related to sexual pain and other female sexual dysfunction, but vaginal dryness may even interfere with simple activities such as walking or exercising, causing genital discomfort. [5]

How is vaginal dryness treated?

Treatment options

Many treatment options ( hormonal & non hormonal) are available with the aim of restoring vaginal physiology and alleviating symptoms.[6]

It is strongly recommended that women see their Health Professional( Gynaecologist / General Practitioner ) regularly and that the causes of  vaginal dryness & related conditions are correctly diagnosed. Also discuss Your preferred treatment option with Your Health Professional. Diagnosing the exact causes is of vital importance.

Any burning, itching or discomfort in the vaginal area is worth a call to your doctor or gynaecologist.

They'll ask about your past health and find out how long you've had symptoms and what seems to make them worse or better.

Your doctor will do a pelvic exam, checking your vagina for any thinning or redness. The exam will help rule out other possible causes for your discomfort, including a vaginal or urinary tract infection. The doctor may also remove cells from your vaginal wall or cervix for a pap test.

Treatment options continued:

Women usually use commercial vaginal moisturizers on a regular basis to nourish tissues, whereas lubricants on demand may help to relieve vaginal dryness during coital activity. These are mainly a combination of protectants and thickening agents in a water soluble base and are primarily used to relieve vaginal dryness during intercourse.

Hormonal replacement therapy ( HRT), via systemic or topical routes, is widely used for the treatment of menopausal effects on the urogenital tract. All local vaginal estrogen products have been recognised as being effective and well tolerated for treating vaginal atrophy. [6]

 In recent years, phytoestrogen based products have become attractive as safer alternatives, and their efficacy has been investigated in experimental and clinical trials. [7]

The efficacy of a isoflavone vaginal gel for the treatment and management of symptoms of vaginal dryness & vaginal atrophy, with the aim of assisting in restoring the vaginal physiology and alleviating symptoms  have been proven in two recent clinical trials and have been proven very effective 18&19.

The first study[18]  was done with women in menopause  and the 2nd study was done with women 26-39 yrs of age taking Combined Oral Contraceptives.



[1] Portman D.J. and Gass M.L.S. (2014). Genitourinary syndrome of menopause: New terminology for vulvovaginal atrophy from the International Society for the Study of Women’s Sexual Health and The North American Menopause Society.

Maturitas, 79, 349-354


[4] Sturdee D.W., Panay N. (2010). On behalf of the International Menopause Society Writing Group. Recommendations for the management of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. Climacteric, 13, 509-522.

[5] [No authors listed] (2013). Management of symptomatic vulvovaginal atrophy: 2013 position statement of The North American Menopause Society Menopause. Menopause, 20, 888-902

[6] Archer D.F. (2010). Efficacy and tolerability of local estrogen therapy for urogenital atrophy. Menopause, 17, 194-203.

[7] Moraes A.R.B. (2009). The effects of topical isoflavones on postmenopausal skin: doubleblind and randomized clinical trial of efficacy. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, 146, 188-192

[18] Filippo Murina, Franco Vicariotto, Stephania DI Francesco, Silvia Oreda                                                         Effective Treatment of vulvar-vaginal atrophy with a new medical device in gel – Women Health care,2017, Volume1,Issue1

[19] Filippo Murina, Franco Vicariotto.

     Effective treatment of Vulvar-Vaginal Complaints in Women Taking a Combined oral Contraceptive with a New Medical Device in Gel – Open Journal of Obstertrics & Gynaecology, 2019,9,326-333

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